Lackawanna Steel Company : A neighborhood Mill

Governor of the
Commonwealth of Pennsylvania
Seal of the Governor of Pennsylvania.svg
Seal of the Governor
Flag of the Governor of Pennsylvania.svg
Flag of the Governor
Tom Wolf governor portrait 2019 (cropped).jpg
Incumbent
Tom Wolf

since January 20, 2015
Style
Status
ResidenceGovernor's Residence
Term lengthFour years, renewable once consecutively
Inaugural holderThomas Mifflin
FormationDecember 21, 1790
DeputyLieutenant Governor
Salary$201,729 (2020)[1]
WebsiteOfficial website Edit this at Wikidata

The governor of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania is the head of state and head of government of the U.S. state, Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, as well as commander-in-chief of the Commonwealth's military forces.[2]

The governor has a duty to enforce state laws and the power to approve or veto bills passed by the Pennsylvania Legislature[3] and to convene the legislature.[4] The governor may grant pardons except in cases of impeachment, but only when recommended by the Board of Pardons.[5]

There have been seven presidents and 47 governors of Pennsylvania, with two governors (Robert E. Pattison and Gifford Pinchot) serving non-consecutive terms, totaling 55 terms in both offices. The longest term was that of the first governor, Thomas Mifflin, who served three full terms as governor in addition to two years as President of the Continental Congress. The shortest term belonged to John Bell, who served only 19 days as acting governor after his predecessor, Edward Martin resigned. The current governor is Tom Wolf, a Democrat whose term began on January 20, 2015.

Governors

Pennsylvania was one of the original thirteen colonies, and was admitted as a state on December 12, 1787. Prior to declaring its independence, Pennsylvania was a colony of the Kingdom of Great Britain; see the list of colonial governors for the pre-statehood period.

Presidents of the Supreme Executive Council

The first Pennsylvania constitution in 1776 created the Supreme Executive Council as the state's executive branch, with the President of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania as its head.[6] The president was chosen annually by the council, though with no specific term dates.[7]

The original 1776 constitution created the position of "vice-president", though no provision was made if the office of the president became vacant, which occurred four times later. Contemporary sources continue to label the chief executive in such times as the vice president, without any notion of succeeding in the presidency. One acting president, George Bryan, was subsequently recognized later as a full-fledged governor, due to his acting as president for over six months.

# Portrait President Took office Left office Vice President
1 Thomas Wharton (1735 - 1778), by Charles Willson Peale (1741 - 1827).jpg Thomas Wharton Jr.
    1735 – May 22, 1778   
(aged 42 or 43)
March 5, 1777 May 23, 1778
[note 1]
George Bryan
2 GeorgeBryan.jpg George Bryan
    1731 – January 27, 1791   
(aged 59)
May 23, 1778 December 1, 1778 acting as president
[note 2]
3 Joseph Reed by Pierre Eugène du Simitière.jpg Joseph Reed
    August 27, 1741 – March 5, 1785   
(aged 43)
December 1, 1778 November 15, 1781 George Bryan
[note 3]
Matthew Smith
[note 3]
William Moore
4 William Moore (Pennsylvania).jpg William Moore
    c. 1735 – July 24, 1793   
(aged 57 or 58)
November 15, 1781 November 7, 1782 James Potter
5 John Dickinson portrait.jpg John Dickinson
    November 13, 1732 – July 24, 1793   
(aged 60)
November 7, 1782 October 18, 1785 James Ewing
James Irvine
[note 3]
Charles Biddle
6 Benjamin Franklin by Joseph Duplessis 1778.jpg Benjamin Franklin
    January 17, 1706 – April 17, 1790   
(aged 84)
October 18, 1785 November 5, 1788 Charles Biddle
Peter Muhlenberg
[note 3]
David Redick
7 Thomas Mifflin.jpg Thomas Mifflin
    January 10, 1744 – January 20, 1800   
(aged 56)
November 5, 1788 December 21, 1790 George Ross

Governors of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania

Five governors of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania who have served since 1995, (left to right): Mark Schweiker, Tom Ridge, Tom Wolf, Tom Corbett and Ed Rendell, pose in front of the south facade of the Pennsylvania State Capitol on the Susquehanna River front in Harrisburg at Wolf's January 2015 gubernatorial inauguration

The 1790 constitution abolished the council and replaced the president with a governor,[8] and established a three-year term for governor commencing on the third Tuesday of the December following the election, with governors not allowed to serve more than nine out of any twelve years.[9] The 1838 constitution moved the start of the term to the third Tuesday of the January following the election, and allowed governors to only serve six out of any nine years.[10] The 1874 constitution lengthened the term to four years, and prohibited governors from succeeding themselves.[11] The current constitution of 1968 changed this to allow governors to serve two consecutive terms, with no lifetime limit.[12]

Under the earlier 1968 constitution, Milton Shapp was the first governor to serve two terms, and Tom Corbett was the first incumbent governor to lose a re-election bid.

If the office of governor becomes vacant through death, resignation, or conviction on impeachment, the lieutenant governor becomes governor for the remainder of the term; if the office is only temporarily vacant due to disability of the governor, the lieutenant governor only acts out the duties of governor.[13] Should both offices be vacant, the president pro tempore of the state senate becomes governor.[14] The position of a lieutenant governor was created in the 1874 constitution; prior to then, the speaker of the senate would act as governor in cases of vacancy. Originally, the lieutenant governor could only act as governor; it was not until the 1968 constitution that the lieutenant governor could actually become the sitting governor in that fashion. The office of governor has been vacant for an extended period once before, a 17-day gap in 1848 between the resignation of the previous governor and the swearing in of his acting successor. Governors and lieutenant governors are elected on the same political party ticket.[15]

Parties

  Anti-Masonic (1)   Democratic (12)   Democratic-Republican (6)    None (1)   Republican (26)   Whig (2)

# Governor Took office Left office Party Lt. Governor
[note 4]
Terms
[note 5]
1 Thomas Mifflin.jpg   Thomas Mifflin
    January 10, 1744 – January 20, 1800   
(aged 56)
December 21, 1790 December 17, 1799 None
[note 6]
None 3
[note 7]
2 ThomasMcKean3.jpg   Thomas McKean
    March 19, 1734 – June 24, 1817   
(aged 83)
December 17, 1799 December 20, 1808 Democratic-
Republican
3
3 SimonSnyder.jpg   Simon Snyder
    November 5, 1759 – November 9, 1819   
(aged 60)
December 20, 1808 December 16, 1817 Democratic-
Republican
3
4 WFindley.jpg   William Findlay
    June 20, 1768 – November 12, 1846   
(aged 78)
December 16, 1817 December 19, 1820 Democratic-
Republican
1
5 Joseph Hiester.jpg   Joseph Hiester
    November 18, 1752 – June 10, 1832   
(aged 79)
December 19, 1820 December 16, 1823 Democratic-
Republican
1
6 Shulze.jpg   John Andrew Shulze
    July 19, 1775 – November 18, 1852   
(aged 77)
December 16, 1823 December 15, 1829 Democratic-
Republican
2
7 George Wolf.jpg   George Wolf
    August 12, 1777 – March 11, 1840   
(aged 62)
December 15, 1829 December 15, 1835 Democratic 2
8 Joseph Ritner-Governor of Pennsylvania.JPG   Joseph Ritner
    March 25, 1780 – October 16, 1869   
(aged 89)
December 15, 1835 January 15, 1839 Anti-Masonic 1
[note 8]
9 DavidRittenhousePorter.jpg   David R. Porter
    October 31, 1788 – August 6, 1867   
(aged 78)
January 15, 1839 January 21, 1845 Democratic 2
[note 9]
10 Francis R. Shunk Governor of Pennsylvania.tif   Francis R. Shunk
    August 7, 1788 – July 20, 1848   
(aged 59)
January 21, 1845 July 9, 1848 Democratic 1+12
[note 10]
  Office vacant July 9, 1848 July 26, 1848
[note 11]
11 W F Johnston.jpg   William F. Johnston
    November 29, 1808 – October 25, 1872   
(aged 63)
July 26, 1848 January 20, 1852 Whig 1+12
[note 12]
12 William Bigler.jpg   William Bigler
    January 1, 1814 – August 9, 1880   
(aged 66)
January 20, 1852 January 16, 1855 Democratic 1
13 James Pollock Pennsylvania Governor.jpg   James Pollock
    September 11, 1810 – April 19, 1890   
(aged 79)
January 16, 1855 January 19, 1858 Whig 1
14 WilliamPacker.jpg   William F. Packer
    April 2, 1807 – September 27, 1870   
(aged 63)
January 19, 1858 January 15, 1861 Democratic 1
15 Andrew Curtin2.jpg   Andrew Gregg Curtin
    April 22, 1815 or 1817 – October 7, 1894   
(aged 77 or 79)
January 15, 1861 January 15, 1867 Republican 2
16 Gearysfmayor.jpeg   John W. Geary
    December 30, 1819 – February 8, 1873   
(aged 63)
January 15, 1867 January 21, 1873 Republican 2
17 JohnFHartranft.jpg   John F. Hartranft
    December 16, 1830 – October 17, 1889   
(aged 58)
January 21, 1873 January 21, 1879 Republican   None 2
[note 13]
  John Latta
18 Henry M. Hoyt - Brady-Handy.jpg   Henry M. Hoyt
    June 8, 1830 – December 1, 1892   
(aged 62)
January 21, 1879 January 16, 1883 Republican   Charles Warren Stone 1
19 RobertEPattison.png   Robert E. Pattison
    December 8, 1850 – August 1, 1904   
(aged 53)
January 16, 1883 January 18, 1887 Democratic   Chauncey Forward Black 1
20 J A Beaver.jpg   James A. Beaver
    October 21, 1837 – January 31, 1914   
(aged 76)
January 18, 1887 January 20, 1891 Republican   William T. Davies 1
19 RobertEPattison.png   Robert E. Pattison
    December 8, 1850 – August 1, 1904   
(aged 53)
January 20, 1891 January 15, 1895 Democratic   Louis Arthur Watres 1
21 Daniel H Hastings.jpg   Daniel H. Hastings
    February 26, 1849 – January 9, 1903   
(aged 53)
January 15, 1895 January 17, 1899 Republican   Walter Lyon 1
22 William Alexis Stone.jpg   William A. Stone
    April 18, 1846 – March 1, 1920   
(aged 73)
January 17, 1899 January 20, 1903 Republican   John P. S. Gobin 1
23 Portrait of Samuel W. Pennypacker.jpg   Samuel W. Pennypacker
    April 9, 1843 – September 2, 1916   
(aged 73)
January 20, 1903 January 15, 1907 Republican   William M. Brown 1
24 Edwin S Stuart 1909.jpg   Edwin Sydney Stuart
    December 28, 1853 – March 21, 1937   
(aged 83)
January 15, 1907 January 17, 1911 Republican   Robert S. Murphy 1
25 JohnKTener.jpg   John K. Tener
    July 25, 1863 – May 19, 1946   
(aged 82)
January 17, 1911 January 19, 1915 Republican   John Merriman Reynolds 1
26 MartinGBrumbaugh.jpg   Martin Grove Brumbaugh
    April 14, 1862 – March 14, 1930   
(aged 67)
January 19, 1915 January 21, 1919 Republican   Frank B. McClain 1
27 William Cameron Sproul.jpg   William Cameron Sproul
    September 16, 1870 – March 21, 1928   
(aged 57)
January 21, 1919 January 16, 1923 Republican   Edward E. Beidleman 1
28 Gifford Pinchot 3c03915u.jpg   Gifford Pinchot
    August 11, 1865 – October 4, 1946   
(aged 81)
January 16, 1923 January 18, 1927 Republican   David J. Davis 1
29 John Stuchell Fisher.jpg   John Stuchell Fisher
    May 25, 1867 – June 25, 1940   
(aged 73)
January 18, 1927 January 20, 1931 Republican   Arthur James 1
28 Gifford Pinchot 3c03915u.jpg   Gifford Pinchot
    August 11, 1865 – October 4, 1946   
(aged 81)
January 20, 1931 January 15, 1935 Republican   Edward C. Shannon 1
30 GeorgeHEarle.jpg   George Howard Earle III
    December 5, 1890 – December 30, 1974   
(aged 84)
January 15, 1935 January 17, 1939 Democratic   Thomas Kennedy 1
31 Arthur H. James (Pennsylvania governor).jpg   Arthur James
    July 14, 1883 – April 27, 1973   
(aged 89)
January 17, 1939 January 19, 1943 Republican   Samuel S. Lewis 1
32 EdwardMartinPA.jpg   Edward Martin
    September 18, 1879 – March 19, 1967   
(aged 87)
January 19, 1943 January 2, 1947 Republican   John C. Bell, Jr. 12
[note 14]
33 John C. Bell Jr. (Pennsylvania governor).jpg   John C. Bell Jr.
    October 25, 1892 – March 18, 1974   
(aged 81)
January 2, 1947 January 21, 1947 Republican   vacant 12
[note 15]
34 James Henderson Duff.jpg   James H. Duff
    January 21, 1883 – December 20, 1969   
(aged 86)
January 21, 1947 January 16, 1951 Republican   Daniel B. Strickler 1
35 John S. Fine (PA).jpg   John S. Fine
    April 10, 1893 – May 21, 1978   
(aged 85)
January 16, 1951 January 18, 1955 Republican   Lloyd H. Wood 1
36 George M. Leader (Pennsylvania governor).jpg   George M. Leader
    January 17, 1918 – May 9, 2013   
(aged 95)
January 18, 1955 January 20, 1959 Democratic   Roy E. Furman 1
37 David L. Lawrence (1).jpg   David L. Lawrence
    June 18, 1889 – November 21, 1966   
(aged 77)
January 20, 1959 January 15, 1963 Democratic   John Morgan Davis 1
38 William Scranton (PA).png   William Scranton
    July 19, 1917 – July 28, 2013   
(aged 96)
January 15, 1963 January 17, 1967 Republican   Raymond P. Shafer 1
39 GovShaferMay67 N2.tif   Raymond P. Shafer
    March 5, 1917 – December 12, 2006   
(aged 89)
January 17, 1967 January 19, 1971 Republican   Raymond J. Broderick 1
40 Milton Shapp.jpg   Milton Shapp
    June 25, 1912 – November 24, 1994   
(aged 82)
January 19, 1971 January 16, 1979 Democratic   Ernest P. Kline 2
[note 16]
41 Dick Thornburgh (PA).jpg   Dick Thornburgh
    July 16, 1932 – December 31, 2020   
(aged 88)
January 16, 1979 January 20, 1987 Republican   William Scranton, III 2
42 Bob Casey Sr (cropped).jpg   Bob Casey Sr.
    January 9, 1932 – May 30, 2000   
(aged 68)
January 20, 1987 January 17, 1995 Democratic   Mark Singel 2
[note 17]
43 Tom Ridge (cropped).jpg   Tom Ridge
    (1945-08-26) August 26, 1945 (age 76)
January 17, 1995 October 5, 2001 Republican   Mark Schweiker 1+12
[note 18]
44 Mark S Schweiker 2001.jpg   Mark Schweiker
    (1953-01-31) January 31, 1953 (age 69)
October 5, 2001 January 21, 2003 Republican   Robert Jubelirer 12
[note 19]
45 Ed Rendell ID2004 crop (cropped).JPG   Ed Rendell
    (1944-01-05) January 5, 1944 (age 78)
January 21, 2003 January 18, 2011 Democratic   Catherine Baker Knoll[note 20] 2
  Joe Scarnati[note 21]
46 Governor Corbett cropped portrait May 2014.jpg   Tom Corbett
    (1949-06-17) June 17, 1949 (age 73)
January 18, 2011 January 20, 2015 Republican   Jim Cawley 1
47 Tom Wolf governor portrait 2019 (cropped).jpg   Tom Wolf
    (1948-11-17) November 17, 1948 (age 73)
January 20, 2015 Incumbent
[note 22]
Democratic   Mike Stack 2
  John Fetterman

Succession

Other high offices held

This is a table of other governorships, congressional and other federal offices, and ranking diplomatic positions in foreign countries held by Pennsylvania governors. All representatives and senators mentioned represented Pennsylvania except where noted.

† Denotes those offices from which the governor resigned to take the governorship.
Governor Gubernatorial term U.S. Congress Other offices held Source
House Senate
Joseph Reed 1778–1781 Delegate to the Continental Congress; elected to the U.S. House but declined his seat. [18]
John Dickinson 1782–1785 President of Delaware, Delegate to the Continental Congress from Delaware, Delegate to the Continental Congress from Pennsylvania [19]
Benjamin Franklin 1785–1788 Minister to France, Minister to Sweden [20]
Thomas Mifflin 1790–1799 President of the Continental Congress [21]
Thomas McKean 1799–1808 President of Delaware, President of the Continental Congress [22]
Simon Snyder 1808–1817 Some records say he was elected to the U.S. Senate, but some only say state senate. The Biographical Directory of the United States Congress has no record of a U.S. Senate term. [23]
William Findlay 1817–1820 S [24]
Joseph Hiester 1820–1823 H† [25]
George Wolf 1829–1835 H† [26]
William Bigler 1852–1855 S [27]
James Pollock 1855–1858 H [28]
Andrew Gregg Curtin 1861–1867 H Ambassador to Russia [29]
John W. Geary 1867–1876 Governor of Kansas Territory [30]
William A. Stone 1899–1903 H† [31]
John K. Tener 1911–1915 H† [32]
George Howard Earle III 1935–1939 Ambassador to Austria [33]
Edward Martin 1943–1947 S [34]
James H. Duff 1947–1951 S [35]
William Scranton 1963–1967 H Ambassador to the United Nations [36]
Dick Thornburgh 1979–1987 U.S. Attorney General [37]
Tom Ridge 1995–2001 H U.S. Secretary of Homeland Security [38]

Living former governors of Pennsylvania

As of 4 July 2022, there are four former governors of Pennsylvania who are currently living at this time, the oldest governor of Pennsylvania being Ed Rendell (served 2003-2011, born 1944). The most recent death of a former governor of Pennsylvania was that of Richard Thornburgh (served 1979–1987, born 1932), on December 31, 2020. The most recently serving governor of Pennsylvania to die was Bob Casey Sr. (served 1987–1995, born 1932), on May 30, 2000.

Governor Gubernatorial term Date of birth (and age)
Tom Ridge 1995–2001 (1945-08-26) August 26, 1945 (age 76)
Mark Schweiker 2001–2003 (1953-01-31) January 31, 1953 (age 69)
Ed Rendell 2003–2011 (1944-01-05) January 5, 1944 (age 78)
Tom Corbett 2011–2015 (1949-06-17) June 17, 1949 (age 73)

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Died in office.
  2. ^ As Vice President of the Supreme Executive Council, acted as president. Four vice presidents acted as president at various times; however, Bryan's lengthy term has caused his term to since be recognized as being equivalent to president. Contemporary sources listed him only as vice president, acting out the duties of president.
  3. ^ a b c d Resigned; no reason was recorded by the Supreme Executive Council.
  4. ^ The office of lieutenant governor was not created until the 1873 Constitution, first being filled in 1875.
  5. ^ The fractional terms of some governors are not to be understood absolutely literally; rather, they are meant to show single terms during which multiple governors served, due to resignations, deaths and the like.
  6. ^ The Federalist Party nominated Mifflin, but he himself carried no party label.
  7. ^ Mifflin was elected governor three times under the 1790 Constitution, having previously been elected once as President of the Supreme Executive Council.
  8. ^ Ritner was the last to serve before the 1838 constitution limited governors to serving six years out of any nine years; that constitution also changed the term to commence the next January from the election, extending Ritner's term by a month.
  9. ^ First governor to serve under the 1838 constitution.
  10. ^ Resigned due to illness; he died of tuberculosis only 11 days later.
  11. ^ Following Francis R. Shunk's resignation, an interregnum of 17 days occurred before the speaker of the state senate, William F. Johnston, was sworn in.
  12. ^ As speaker of the state senate, filled unexpired term, and was subsequently elected governor in his own right.
  13. ^ First governor under the 1874 constitution, which prevented governors from succeeding themselves and lengthened terms to four years. Since Hartranft was originally elected under the previous constitution, he was allowed to succeed himself. Hartranft's first term was shortened from three to two years to fit the electoral schedule of the new constitution.
  14. ^ Resigned to take an elected seat in the United States Senate. While official sources state Martin resigned on January 3, most contemporary sources reported his resignation as occurring on January 2.[16][17]
  15. ^ As lieutenant governor, acted as governor for unexpired term.
  16. ^ First governor under the 1968 constitution, and thus eligible to succeed himself.
  17. ^ On June 14, 1993, Casey transferred executive authority to Lieutenant Governor Singel, and later that day underwent a heart-liver transplant operation. Singel acted as governor until Casey resumed the powers and duties of the office six months later on December 13, 1993. Because Casey never officially resigned, Singel was only an acting governor.
  18. ^ Resigned to be Director of the Office of Homeland Security.
  19. ^ As lieutenant governor, filled unexpired term.
  20. ^ Died in office.
  21. ^ As president pro tempore of the state senate, acted as lieutenant governor.
  22. ^ Wolf's second term will expire on January 17, 2023; he will be term limited.

References

General
Constitutions
Specific
  1. ^ "CSG Releases 2013 Governor Salaries". The Council of State Governments. June 25, 2013. Retrieved November 23, 2014.
  2. ^ PA Constitution article IV, § 7
  3. ^ PA Constitution article IV, § 15
  4. ^ PA Constitution article IV, § 12
  5. ^ PA Constitution article IV, § 9
  6. ^ 1776 Constitution § 3
  7. ^ 1776 Constitution § 19
  8. ^ 1790 Constitution article II, § 1
  9. ^ 1790 Constitution article IV, § 3
  10. ^ 1838 Constitution article II, § 3
  11. ^ 1874 Constitution article IV, § 3
  12. ^ PA Constitution article IV, § 3
  13. ^ PA Constitution article IV, § 13
  14. ^ PA Constitution article IV, § 14
  15. ^ "Executive Branch of the Several States". The Green Papers. Retrieved April 30, 2008.
  16. ^ "Martin Quits Today as Penna. Governor; Bell to Take Over". Gettysburg Times. January 2, 1947. Retrieved April 30, 2008.
  17. ^ Stevens, Sylvester Kirby (1964). Pennsylvania: Birthplace of a Nation. New York: Random House. p. 375.
  18. ^ "Joseph Reed". University of Pennsylvania Archives and Records Center. Archived from the original on 2010-06-13. Retrieved July 13, 2010.
  19. ^ "John Dickinson". Delaware's Governors. State of Delaware. Archived from the original on February 13, 1998. Retrieved July 9, 2010.
  20. ^ "Benjamin Franklin (1706-1790)". U.S. Department of State. Retrieved July 9, 2010.
  21. ^ "Thomas Mifflin". U.S. Army. Retrieved July 9, 2010.
  22. ^ "Delaware's Governors". State of Delaware. Archived from the original on January 21, 1997. Retrieved July 9, 2010.
  23. ^ Wagenseller, George Washington (1919). Snyder County Annals Volume 1. Middleburgh, Pennsylvania: The Middleburgh Post. p. 8.
  24. ^ "Findlay, John". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Clerk of the United States House of Representatives and Historian of the United States Senate. Retrieved July 9, 2010.
  25. ^ "HIESTER, Joseph". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Clerk of the United States House of Representatives and Historian of the United States Senate. Retrieved April 30, 2008.
  26. ^ "WOLF, George". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Clerk of the United States House of Representatives and Historian of the United States Senate. Retrieved April 30, 2008.
  27. ^ "Bigley, William". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Clerk of the United States House of Representatives and Historian of the United States Senate. Retrieved July 9, 2010.
  28. ^ "Pollock, James". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Clerk of the United States House of Representatives and Historian of the United States Senate. Retrieved July 9, 2010.
  29. ^ "Curtin, Andrew Gregg". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Clerk of the United States House of Representatives and Historian of the United States Senate. Retrieved July 9, 2010.
  30. ^ "Kansas Governors". Kansas State Historical Society. Archived from the original on June 13, 2010. Retrieved July 9, 2010.
  31. ^ "STONE, William Alexis". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Clerk of the United States House of Representatives and Historian of the United States Senate. Retrieved April 30, 2008.
  32. ^ "TENER, John Kinley". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Clerk of the United States House of Representatives and Historian of the United States Senate. Retrieved April 30, 2008.
  33. ^ "Former U.S. Ambassadors to Austria" (PDF). U.S. Department of State. Retrieved July 9, 2010.
  34. ^ "Martin, Edward". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Clerk of the United States House of Representatives and Historian of the United States Senate. Retrieved July 9, 2010.
  35. ^ "Duff, James Henderson". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Clerk of the United States House of Representatives and Historian of the United States Senate. Retrieved July 9, 2010.
  36. ^ "History of USUN Ambassadors". United States Mission to the U.N. Archived from the original on September 18, 2009. Retrieved July 9, 2010.
  37. ^ "Dick Thornburgh". The Dick Thornburgh Papers. University of Pittsburgh. Retrieved July 9, 2010.
  38. ^ "Tom Ridge, Homeland Security Secretary 2003 - 2005". Division of Homeland Security. 17 August 2006. Retrieved July 9, 2010.

External links