Damascus steel was the forged steel of the blades of swords smithed in the Near East from ingots of Wootz steel either imported from Southern India or made in production centres in Sri Lanka, or Khorasan, Iran. These swords are characterized by distinctive patterns of banding and mottling reminiscent of flowing water, sometimes in a "ladder" or "rose" pattern. Such blades were reputed to be tough, resistant to shattering, and capable of being honed to a sharp, resilient edge.
Wootz (Indian), Pulad (Persian), Fuladh (Arabic), Bulat (Russian) and Bintie (Chinese) are all names for historical ultra-high carbon crucible steel typified by carbide segregation. "Wootz" is an erroneous transliteration of "utsa" or fountain" in Sanskrit, however since 1794 it has been the primary word used to refer to historical hypereutectoid crucible steel.
The origin of the name "Damascus Steel" is contentious: the Islamic scholars al-Kindi (full name Abu Ya'qub ibn Ishaq al-Kindi, circa 800 CE – 873 CE) and al-Biruni (full name Abu al-Rayhan Muhammad ibn Ahmad al-Biruni, circa 973 CE – 1048 CE) both wrote about swords and steel made for swords, based on their surface appearance, geographical location of production or forging, or the name of the smith, and each mentions "damascene" or "damascus" swords to some extent.
Drawing from al-Kindi and al-Biruni, there are three potential sources for the term "Damascus" in the context of steel:
- The word "damas" is the root word for "watered" in Arabic  with "water" being "ma" in Arabic and Damascus blades are often described as exhibiting a water-pattern on their surface, and are often referred to as "watered steel" in multiple languages.
- Al-Kindi called swords produced and forged in Damascus as Damascene but it is worth noting that these swords were not described as having a pattern in the steel.
- Al-Biruni mentions a sword-smith called Damasqui who made swords of crucible steel.
The most common explanation is that steel is named after Damascus, the capital city of Syria and one of the largest cities in the ancient Levant. It may either refer to swords made or sold in Damascus directly, or it may just refer to the aspect of the typical patterns, by comparison with Damask fabrics (also named for Damascus), or it may indeed stem from the root word of "damas".
Identification of crucible "Damascus" steel based on metallurgical structures  is difficult, as crucible steel cannot be reliably distinguished from other types of steel by just one criterion, so the following distinguishing characteristics of crucible steel must be taken into consideration:
- The crucible steel was liquid, leading to a relatively homogeneous steel content with virtually no slag
- The formation of dendrites is a typical characteristic
- The segregation of elements into dendritic and interdendritic regions throughout the sample
By these definitions, modern recreations of crucible steel are consistent with historic examples.
Bin iron: It is produced by the Western Barbarians. Some [types] have a spiral self-patterning, while others have a sesame-seed or snowflake patterning. When a knife or sword is wiped clean and treated with 'gold thread' alum, [the pattern] appears. Its value is greater than silver.— Cao Zhao
The reputation and history of Damascus steel has given rise to many legends, such as the ability to cut through a rifle barrel or to cut a hair falling across the blade, though the accuracy of these legends is not reflected by the extant examples of patterned crucible steel swords which are often tempered in such a way as to retain a bend after being flexed past their elastic limit. A research team in Germany published a report in 2006 revealing nanowires and carbon nanotubes in a blade forged from Damascus steel, although John Verhoeven of Iowa State University in Ames, suggests the research team which reported nanowires in crucible steel was seeing cementite, which can itself exist as rods, so there might not be any carbon nanotubes in the rod-like structure. Although many types of modern steel outperform ancient Damascus alloys, chemical reactions in the production process made the blades extraordinary for their time, as Damascus steel was superplastic and very hard at the same time. During the smelting process to obtain Wootz steel ingots, woody biomass and leaves are known to have been used as carburizing additives along with certain specific types of iron rich in microalloying elements. These ingots would then be further forged and worked into Damascus steel blades. Research now shows that carbon nanotubes can be derived from plant fibers, suggesting how the nanotubes were formed in the steel. Some experts expect to discover such nanotubes in more relics as they are analyzed more closely. Wootz was also mentioned to have been made out of a co-fusion process using "shaburqan " (hard steel, likely white cast iron) and "narmahan" (soft steel) by Biruni, both of which were forms of either high and low carbon bloomery iron, or low carbon bloom with cast iron. In such a crucible recipe, no added plant material is necessary to provide the required carbon content, and as such any nanowires of cementite or carbon nanotubes would not have been the result of plant fibres.
Damascus blades were first manufactured in the Near East from ingots of wootz steel that were imported from Southern India (present day Tamil Nadu and Kerala). The Arabs introduced the wootz steel to Damascus, where a weapons industry thrived. From the 3rd century to the 17th century, steel ingots were being shipped to the Middle East from South India. There was also domestic production of crucible steel outside of India, including Merv (Turkmenistan) and Chāhak, Iran.
Bin iron, which is produced by the Western Barbarians [Xi Fan 西番], is especially fine. The Bao zang lun states: 'There are five kinds of iron ... [The first two come from Hubei and Jiangxi.] Bin iron is produced in Persia [Bosi 波斯]; it is so hard and sharp that it can cut gold and jade ... [The last two kinds come from Shanxi and the Southwest.]
Loss of the technique
Many claim that modern attempts to duplicate the metal have not been entirely successful due to differences in raw materials and manufacturing techniques. However, several individuals in modern times have successfully produced pattern forming hypereutectoid crucible steel with visible carbide banding on the surface, consistent with original Damascus Steel.
Production of these patterned swords gradually declined, ceasing by around 1900, with the last account being from 1903 in Sri Lanka documented by Coomaraswamy. Some gunsmiths during the 18th and 19th century used the term "damascus steel" to describe their pattern-welded gun barrels, but they did not use crucible steel. Several modern theories have ventured to explain this decline, including the breakdown of trade routes to supply the needed metals, the lack of trace impurities in the metals, the possible loss of knowledge on the crafting techniques through secrecy and lack of transmission, suppression of the industry in India by the British Raj, or a combination of all the above.
In addition to being made into blades in India (particularly Golconda) and Sri Lanka, wootz / ukku was imported as ingots to various production centers, including Khorasan, and Isfahan, where the steel was used to produce blades, as well as across the Middle East. Al Kindi states that crucible steel was also made in Khorasan known as Muharrar, in addition to steel that was imported. In Damascus, where many of these swords were sold, there is no evidence of local production of crucible steel, though there is evidence of imported steel being forged into swords in Damascus. Due to the distance of trade for this steel, a sufficiently lengthy disruption of the trade routes could have ended the production of Damascus steel and eventually led to the loss of the technique. In addition, the need for key trace impurities of carbide formers such as tungsten, vanadium or manganese within the materials needed for the production of the steel may be absent if this material was acquired from different production regions or smelted from ores lacking these key trace elements. The technique for controlled thermal cycling after the initial forging at a specific temperature could also have been lost, thereby preventing the final damask pattern in the steel from occurring. The disruption of mining and steel manufacture by the British Raj in the form of production taxes and export bans may have also contributed to a loss of knowledge of key ore sources or key techniques.
The discovery of carbon nanotubes in the Damascus steel's composition supports the hypothesis that wootz production was halted due to a loss of ore sources or technical knowledge, since the precipitation of carbon nanotubes probably resulted from a specific process that may be difficult to replicate should the production technique or raw materials used be significantly altered. The claim that carbon nanowires were found has not been confirmed by further studies, and there is contention among academics including John Verhoeven about whether the nanowires observed are actually stretched rafts or rods formed out of cementite spheroids.
Moran: billet welding
Since the well-known technique of pattern welding—the forge-welding of a blade from several differing pieces—produced surface patterns similar to those found on Damascus blades, some modern blacksmiths were erroneously led to believe that the original Damascus blades were made using this technique. However today, the difference between wootz steel and pattern welding is fully documented and well understood. Pattern-welded steel has been referred to as "Damascus steel" since 1973 when Bladesmith William F. Moran unveiled his "Damascus knives" at the Knifemakers' Guild Show.
This "Modern Damascus" is made from several types of steel and iron slices welded together to form a billet (semi-finished product), and currently, the term "Damascus" (although technically incorrect) is widely accepted to describe modern pattern-welded steel blades in the trade. The patterns vary depending on how the smith works the billet. The billet is drawn out and folded until the desired number of layers are formed. To attain a Master Smith rating with the American Bladesmith Society that Moran founded, the smith must forge a Damascus blade with a minimum of 300 layers.
Verhoeven and Pendray: crucible
J. D. Verhoeven and A. H. Pendray published an article on their attempts to reproduce the elemental, structural, and visual characteristics of Damascus steel. They started with a cake of steel that matched the properties of the original wootz steel from India, which also matched a number of original Damascus swords that Verhoeven and Pendray had access to. The wootz was in a soft, annealed state, with a grain structure and beads of pure iron carbide in cementite spheroids, which resulted from its hypereutectoid state. Verhoeven and Pendray had already determined that the grains on the surface of the steel were grains of iron carbide—their goal was to reproduce the iron carbide patterns they saw in the Damascus blades from the grains in the wootz.
Although such material could be worked at low temperatures to produce the striated Damascene pattern of intermixed ferrite/pearlite and cementite spheroid bands in a manner identical to pattern-welded Damascus steel, any heat treatment sufficient to dissolve the carbides was thought to permanently destroy the pattern. However, Verhoeven and Pendray discovered that in samples of true Damascus steel, the Damascene pattern could be recovered by thermally cycling and thermally manipulating the steel at a moderate temperature. They found that certain carbide forming elements, one of which was vanadium, did not disperse until the steel reached higher temperatures than those needed to dissolve the carbides. Therefore, a high heat treatment could remove the visual evidence of patterning associated with carbides but did not remove the underlying patterning of the carbide forming elements; a subsequent lower-temperature heat treatment, at a temperature at which the carbides were again stable, could recover the structure by the binding of carbon by those elements and causing the segregation of cementite spheroids to those locations. Thermal cycling after forging allows for the aggregation of carbon onto these carbide formers, as carbon migrates much more rapidly than the carbide formers. Progressive thermal cycling leads to the coarsening of the cementite spheroids via Ostwald ripening.
Anosov, Wadsworth and Sherby: bulat
In Russia, chronicles record the use of a material known as bulat steel to make highly valued weapons, including swords, knives, and axes. Tsar Michael of Russia reportedly had a bulat helmet made for him in 1621. The exact origin or the manufacturing process of the bulat is unknown, but it was likely imported to Russia via Persia and Turkestan, and it was similar and possibly the same as Damascus steel. Pavel Petrovich Anosov made several attempts to reproduce the process in the mid-19th century. Wadsworth and Sherby also researched  the reproduction of bulat steel and published their results in 1980.
A team of researchers based at the Technical University of Dresden that used x-rays and electron microscopy to examine Damascus steel discovered the presence of cementite nanowires and carbon nanotubes. Peter Paufler, a member of the Dresden team, says that these nanostructures are a result of the forging process.
Prior to the early 20th century, all shotgun barrels were forged by heating narrow strips of iron and steel and shaping them around a mandrel. This process was referred to as "laminating" or "Damascus". These types of barrels earned a reputation for weakness and were never meant to be used with modern smokeless powder, or any kind of moderately powerful explosive. Because of the resemblance to Damascus steel, higher-end barrels were made by Belgian and British gun makers. These barrels are proof marked and meant to be used with light pressure loads. Current gun manufacturers make slide assemblies and small parts such as triggers and safeties for Colt M1911 pistols from powdered Swedish steel resulting in a swirling two-toned effect; these parts are often referred to as "Stainless Damascus".
The exceptionally strong fictional Valyrian steel mentioned in George R. R. Martin's book series A Song of Ice and Fire, as well as its television adaptation Game of Thrones, appears to have been inspired by Damascus steel, but with a magic twist. Just like Damascus/Wootz steel, Valyrian steel also seems to be a lost art from an ancient civilization. Unlike Damascus steel, however, Valyrian steel blades require no maintenance and cannot be damaged through normal combat.
In Call of Duty: Modern Warfare (2019) and Call of Duty: Mobile, iridescent blue and red Damascus steel weapon camouflage is available for players who have unlocked all other camouflages for every base weapon in the game.
- Toledo steel
- Wootz steel
- Noric steel
- Bulat steel
- Tamahagane steel
- Laminated steel blade
- Tungsten carbide
- Pacey, Arnold (1991). Technology in World Civilization: A Thousand-year History. MIT Press. p. 80. ISBN 978-0-262-66072-3.
- The Sword and the Crucible: A History of the Metallurgy of European Swords Up to the 16th Century, Alan R. Williams (2012). The Sword and the Crucible. Brill. p. 30. ISBN 9789004227835.
- Bronson, Bennet (1986). "The making and selling of wootz, a crucible steel of India". Archeomaterials. 1: 1. S2CID 111606783.
- Figiel, Leo S. (1991). On Damascus Steel. Atlantis Arts Press. pp. 10–11. ISBN 978-0-9628711-0-8.
- Dube, R. K. (2014-11-01). "Wootz: Erroneous Transliteration of Sanskrit "Utsa" used for Indian Crucible Steel". JOM. 66 (11): 2390–2396. doi:10.1007/s11837-014-1154-1. ISSN 1543-1851.
- Sachse, Manfred (2008). Damascus steel myth, history, technology, applications (3rd ed.). Düsseldorf. ISBN 978-3-514-00751-2. OCLC 277045957.
- Feuerbach, Anna Marie. (2002). Crucible steel in Central Asia: production, use, and origins. University of London. OCLC 499391952.
- Hassan, A. Y. (1978). "Iron and Steel Technology in Medieval Arabic Sources". Journal for the History of Arabic Science. 2: 31–52.
- Bīrūnī, Muḥammad ibn Aḥmad (1989). Kitāb al-jamāhir fī maʻrifat al-jawāhir [The book most comprehensive in knowledge on precious stones: al-Beruni's book on mineralogy]. Islamabad: Pakistan Hijra Council. ISBN 969-8016-28-7. OCLC 25412863.
- Goddard, Wayne (2000). The Wonder of Knifemaking. Iola, WI: Krause Publications. pp. 137–145. ISBN 978-0-87341-798-3.
- Williams, Alan R. (2003). The knight and the blast furnace: a history of the metallurgy of armour in the Middle Ages & the early modern period. History of warfare. Vol. 12. Leiden: BRILL. pp. 11–15. ISBN 978-90-04-12498-1.
- Verhoeven, J.D.; Pendray, A.H.; Dauksch, W.E. (1998). "The key role of impurities in ancient damascus steel blades". Journal of Metallurgy. 50 (9): 58. Bibcode:1998JOM....50i..58V. doi:10.1007/s11837-998-0419-y. S2CID 135854276.
- Wagner 2008, p. 271.
- Becker, Otto Matthew (1910). High-speed steel: the development, nature, treatment, and use of high-speed steels, together with some suggestions as to the problems involved in their use. New York: McGraw-Hill. pp. 10–14.
- Reibold, M.; Paufler, P.; Levin, A. A.; Kochmann, W.; Pätzke, N.; Meyer, D. C. (2006). "Materials: Carbon nanotubes in an ancient Damascus sabre". Nature. 444 (7117): 286. Bibcode:2006Natur.444..286R. doi:10.1038/444286a. PMID 17108950. S2CID 4431079.
- "Secret's out for Saracen sabres". New Scientist. 8 November 2006.
- "Legendary Swords' Sharpness, Strength From Nanotubes, Study Says". National Geographic. 2010-10-28. Archived from the original on 18 November 2006. Retrieved 19 November 2006.
- Fountain, Henry (2006-11-28). "Antique Nanotubes". New York Times. Retrieved 2011-11-13.
- Sanderson, Katharine (2006-11-15). "Sharpest cut from nanotube sword". Nature: news061113–11. doi:10.1038/news061113-11. ISSN 0028-0836. S2CID 136774602.
- Goodell B, Xie X, Qian Y, Daniel G, Peterson M, Jellison J (2008). "Carbon nanotubes produced from natural cellulosic materials". Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology. 8 (5): 2472–4. doi:10.1166/jnn.2008.235. PMID 18572666.
- Hoyland, Robert. Islamic Swords: ch 3: Kindi on Swords commentary.
- Feuerbach, Ann; Merkel, John F.; Griffiths, Dafydd R. (1996). "Production of Crucible Steel by Co-Fusion: Archaeometallurgical Evidence from the Ninth-Early Tenth Century at the Site of Merv, Turkmenistan". MRS Proceedings. 462. doi:10.1557/PROC-462-105.
- Sharada Srinivasan; Srinivasa Ranganathan (2004). India's Legendary Wootz Steel: An Advanced Material of the Ancient World. National Institute of Advanced Studies. OCLC 82439861. Archived from the original on 2019-02-11. Retrieved 2014-08-12.
- Sinopoli, Carla M. (2003). The Political Economy of Craft Production: Crafting Empire in South India, c. 1350–1650. Cambridge University Press. p. 192. ISBN 0-521-82613-6.
- Alipour, Rahil; Rehren, Thilo (2015-02-15). "Persian Pulād Production: Chāhak Tradition". Journal of Islamic Archaeology. 1 (2): 231–261. doi:10.1558/jia.v1i2.24174. ISSN 2051-9710.
- "Early Islamic manufacture of crucible steel at Merv, Turkmenistan". www.academia.edu. Retrieved 2020-09-10.
- Wagner 2008, p. 269.
- Wadsworth, Jeffrey; Sherby, Oleg D. (1980). "On the Bulat – Damascus Steel Revisited". Prog. Mater. Sci. 25 (1): 35–68. doi:10.1016/0079-6425(80)90014-6.
- "John Verhoeven: Mystery of Damascus Steel Swords Unveiled". Archived from the original on 11 August 2018.
- Burton, Sir Richard Francis (1884). The Book of the Sword. London: Chatto and Windus. p. 111. ISBN 1605204366.
- Milgrom, Lionel (15 November 2006). "Carbon nanotubes: Saladin's secret weapon".
- Allan, James W.; Gilmour, Brian J. J.; Studies, British Institute of Persian (2000). Persian Steel: The Tanavoli Collection. Oxford University Press for the Board of the Faculty of Oriental Studies, University of Oxford and the British Institute of Persian Studies. ISBN 978-0-19-728025-6.
- "Metallurgy of Ancient Indian Iron and Steel", SpringerReference, Berlin/Heidelberg: Springer-Verlag, 2011, doi:10.1007/springerreference_78541
- Maryon, Herbert (1948). "A Sword of the Nydam Type from Ely Fields Farm, near Ely". Proceedings of the Cambridge Antiquarian Society. XLI: 73–76. doi:10.5284/1034398.
- Maryon, Herbert (February 1960). "Pattern-Welding and Damascening of Sword-Blades—Part 1: Pattern-Welding". Studies in Conservation. 5 (1): 25–37. doi:10.2307/1505063. JSTOR 1505063.
- Maryon, Herbert (May 1960). "Pattern-Welding and Damascening of Sword-Blades—Part 2: The Damascene Process". Studies in Conservation. 5 (2): 52–60. doi:10.2307/1504953. JSTOR 1504953.
- Lewis, Jack; Roger Combs (1992). Gun digest book of knives. DBI. pp. 58–64. ISBN 978-0-87349-129-7.
- Kertzman, Joe (2007). Art of the Knife. Krause Publications. pp. 224–6. ISBN 978-0-89689-470-9.
- Loveless, Robert; Barney, Richard (1995) . How to Make Knives. Knife World Publications. p. 169. ISBN 0-695-80913-X.
- "ABS Testing Rules and Guidelines for the Master Smith Rating" (PDF). Retrieved 2011-03-12.
- US 5185044, Verhoeven, John D. & Pendray, Alfred H., "Method of making "Damascus" blades", published 1992-03-09
- Verhoeven, J. D.; Pendray, A. H.; Dauksch, W. E.; Wagstaff, S. R. (2018-07-01). "Damascus Steel Revisited". JOM. 70 (7): 1331–1336. Bibcode:2018JOM....70g1331V. doi:10.1007/s11837-018-2915-z. ISSN 1543-1851. S2CID 139673807.
- Kochmann, W.; Reibold, Marianne; Goldberg, Rolf; Hauffe, Wolfgang; Levin, Alexander A; Meyer, Dirk C; Stephan, Thurid; Müller, Heide; Belger, André; Paufler, Peter (2004). "Nanowires in ancient Damascus steel". Journal of Alloys and Compounds. 372 (1–2): L15–L19. doi:10.1016/j.jallcom.2003.10.005. ISSN 0925-8388.
Levin, A. A.; Meyer, D. C.; Reibold, M.; Kochmann, W.; Pätzke, N.; Paufler, P. (2005). "Microstructure of a genuine Damascus sabre" (PDF). Crystal Research and Technology. 40 (9): 905–916. doi:10.1002/crat.200410456. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2006-03-15.
- Sanderson, K. (2006). "Sharpest cut from nanotube sword". Nature. 444: 286. doi:10.1038/news061113-11. S2CID 136774602.
- Simpson, Layne (2003). Shotguns & Shotgunning. Krause Publications. p. 256. ISBN 978-0-87349-567-7.
- Matunas, Edward A. (2003). Do-It-Yourself Gun Repair. Woods N' Water. p. 240. ISBN 978-0-9722804-2-6.
- Hopkins, Cameron (2000). "Damascus Knight .45". American Handgunner Magazine. 20 (4): 128.
- Osborn, Marijane (2002). ""The Wealth They Left Us": Two Women Author Themselves through Others' Lives in Beowulf". heroicage.org. Department of English, University of California at Davis. Retrieved 6 July 2021.
- "Beowulf: Lines 1399 to 1799" [Lines 1655 - 1693 (Robert Fletcher, trans.; Sandy Eckard, pres.)]. As.wvu.edu. pp. 1665–1670. Retrieved 16 August 2021.
- The Daily Telegraph (21 June 2017). "There's a real-life equivalent to Valyrian Steel". The Telegraph. Archived from the original on 19 September 2018. Retrieved 19 September 2018.
- "Damascene Technique in Metal Working"
- Verhoeven, J.D.; Pendray, A.H.; Dauksch, W.E. (September 2004). "The continuing study of damascus steel: Bars from the Alwar Armory". JOM. 56 (9): 17–20. Bibcode:2004JOM....56i..17V. doi:10.1007/s11837-004-0193-4. S2CID 137555792.
- Verhoeven, J.D. (2007). "Pattern Formation in Wootz Damascus Steel Swords and Blades" (PDF). Indian Journal of History of Science. 42 (4): 559–574.
- John Verhoeven: Mystery of Damascus Steel Swords Unveiled
- Wagner, Donald B. (2008), Science and Civilization in China Volume 5-11: Ferrous Metallurgy, Cambridge University Press
- Loades, Mike; Pendray, Al (21 November 2017). The Secrets of Wootz Damascus Steel. YouTube. Archived from the original on 2021-11-17.
- US 5185044, Verhoeven, J.D. & Pendray, A.H., "Method of making "Damascus" blades", published 9 February 1993